Narrative point of view or narrative perspective describes the position of the narrator, that is, the character of the storyteller, in relation to the story being told. It can be thought of as a camera mounted on the narrator’s shoulder that can also look back inside the narrator’s mind. A conscious narrator, as a human participant of past events, is an incomplete witness by definition, unable to fully see and comprehend events in their entirety as they unfurl, not necessarily objective in their inner one flew over the cuckoo’s nest analysis essay or sharing them fully, and furthermore may be pursuing some hidden agenda. In this novel, the second-person narrator is observing his own out-of-control life, unable to cope with a trauma he keeps hidden from readers for most of the book.
You are not the kind of guy who would be at a place like this at this time of the morning. But here you are, and you cannot say that the terrain is entirely unfamiliar, although the details are fuzzy. Traditionally, third-person narration is the most commonly used narrative mode in literature. It does not require that the narrator’s existence be explained or developed as a particular character, as with a first-person narrator.
Instead, a third-person narrator is often simply some disembodied “commentary” or “voice”, rather than a fully developed character. The third-person modes are usually categorized along two axes. A limited narrator cannot describe anything outside of a focal character’s particular knowledge and experiences. Often, a narrator using the first person will try to be more objective by also employing the third person for important action scenes, especially those in which they are not directly involved or in scenes where they are not present to have viewed the events in firsthand.
1970s, also switches from first- to third-person narrative using different characters. Often, interior monologues and inner desires or motivations, as well as pieces of incomplete thoughts, are expressed to the audience but not necessarily to other characters. If the character is directly involved in the plot, this narrator is also called the viewpoint character. This mode may be employed to give the audience a deliberate sense of disbelief in the story or a level of suspicion or mystery as to what information is meant to be true and what is to be false. A naive narrator is one who is so ignorant and inexperienced that they actually expose the faults and issues of their world.
Child narrators can also fall under this category. Although epistolary works can be considered multiple-person narratives, they also can be classified separately, as they arguably have no narrator at all—just an author who has gathered the documents together in one place. Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont. Langston Hughes does the same thing in a shorter form in his story “Passing”, which consists of a young man’s letter to his mother. The third-person narrative voices are narrative-voice techniques employed solely under the category of the third-person view. Certain third-person omniscient modes are also classifiable as “third person, subjective” modes that switch between the thoughts, feelings, etc.
This style, in both its limited and omniscient variants, became the most popular narrative perspective during the 20th century. The reader learns the events of the narrative through the perceptions of the chosen character. Often the narrator is self-dehumanized in order to make the narrative more neutral. This type of narrative mode, outside of fiction, is often employed by newspaper articles, biographical documents, and scientific journals.
This narrative mode can be described as a “fly-on-the-wall” or “camera lens” approach that can only record the observable actions but does not interpret these actions or relay what thoughts are going through the minds of the characters. Works of fiction that use this style emphasize characters acting out their feelings observably. Internal thoughts, if expressed, are given voice through an aside or soliloquy. While this approach does not allow the author to reveal the unexpressed thoughts and feelings of the characters, it does allow the author to reveal information that not all or any of the characters may be aware of. A story in this narrative mode is presented by a narrator with an overarching point of view, seeing and knowing everything that happens within the world of the story, including what each of the characters is thinking and feeling. It sometimes even takes a subjective approach.
Usually, the universal omniscient perspective reinforces the impression that the narrator is not connected to the events of the story. Many stories, especially in literature, alternate between the third person limited and third person omniscient. The future tense is the most rare, portraying the events of the plot as occurring some time after the present moment, in a time-period yet to come. In its broadest sense, narration encompasses all forms of storytelling, fictional or not: personal anecdotes, “true crime”, and historical narratives all fit here, along with many other non-fiction forms. In its most restricted sense, narration is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator communicates directly to the reader. In the context of rhetorical modes, the purpose of narration is to tell a story or to narrate an event or series of events.
Narrative may exist in a variety of forms: biographies, anecdotes, short stories, or novels. In this context, all written fiction may be viewed as narration. Narrowly defined, narration is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator is communicating directly to the reader. But if the broad definition of narration includes all written fiction, and the narrow definition is limited merely to that which is directly communicated to the reader, then what comprises the rest of written fiction? The remainder of written fiction would be in the form of any of the other fiction-writing modes. Narration, as a fiction-writing mode, is a matter for discussion among fiction writers and writing coaches. The ability to use the different points of view is one measure of a person’s writing skill.