Periods of Egyptian civilization The Egyptian civilization is not only viewed as one of the oldest civilizations, but also as one of the most durable ones. The Egyptian civilization is not only viewed essay on four seasons one of the oldest civilizations, but also as one of the most durable ones.
During this period 42 territorial and political unities were formed. Those, in turn, become part of a single Egyptian state. Ancient Egyptian pharaoh Menes, the founder of the 1st Dynasty united Egypt in a whole. The integrity of the country was strengthened by establishing a centralized irrigation system and an administrative apparatus of the invention and spread of hieroglyphic writing.
Egypt is considered to be a powerful state based on economic and political factors. This is a time of the internal strife and the collapse of the centralized state. The city of Thebes became one of the major centers that played a huge role in Ancient Egypt. The country was reunited, and the power of the prefecture leaders was limited. Egypt increased its territory, particularly in the south. In addition to this, it launched glass manufacturing and started a proliferation of tools made of bronze.
Semitic origin, invaded from Asia and conquered the northern and central parts of the country. The rulers of Thebes led national liberation struggles that ended the expulsion of the Hyksos. Hyksos attacked Egypt and occupied the Egyptian lands. The era of the heyday of Egyptian civilization. Egypt expanded its ownership to the Euphrates in the east and the third cataract of the Nile in the south. Pharaohs put more effort to keep their land in the fight against the Hittite Empire, and later with the Sea Peoples. The time of strife, invasions and alien dominations: Libyan, Nubian, Assyrian.
During this period, Egypt survived its last ascent. The Persian Empire conquered Egypt, but the increase in the tax oppression and abuse led to the Persians, the Egyptians revolted and liberated the country. The union reduced to the internal strife that caused the weakening of the state and the restoration of Persian influence. In 332 BC, Persians were driven out by Alexander the Great. After the collapse of the empire Alexander the Great in Egypt established the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty, which lasted until the time of the Roman conquest.
The calamity triggered by low Nile floods was the impetus to radical social changes and a reformulation of the notion of kingship. Hence, as we can see Ancient Egypt started with the primary association of tribes in the valley of the River Nile in 3150 BC and ended around 31 BC, when the Roman Empire conquered Egypt. The latter event is not the first period of foreign Dominion, but the arrival of the Romans marked significant changes in the cultural and religious life of Egypt, as well as the termination of Egypt as a unified civilization. Ancient Egypt developed over three and a half thousand years. It all started with the primary association of tribes in the valley of the River Nile in 3150 BC and ended around 31 BC, when the Roman Empire conquered Egypt. The latter event is not the first period of foreign reign, but the arrival of the Romans marked the significant changes in the cultural and religious life of Egypt, as well as the termination of Egypt as a unified civilization.
The basis of the existence of ancient Egypt was a constant control of balance of natural and human resources , which primarily meant control over the irrigation of the fertile valley of the Nile , the use of minerals occurring in the valley and surrounding desert regions, the development of independent systems of writing and literature, the organization of collective projects, trade with neighbors in eastern and central Africa and the eastern Mediterranean, and, finally, military campaigns, which demonstrated the strength and power of the empire, as well as the territorial advantage over neighboring cultures at different periods of time. Those actions were organized and motivated by socio-political and economic elite that reached a social consensus through a system of religious means. For administrative purposes, Egypt was divided into different districts. In the days of the Pharaohs a whole country was divided into 42 nomes.
In Egypt, different taxes were paid according to the type of activity. The vizier controlled revenues from the people in the budget and plans for the collection. The householders also have to pay taxes, as annually they were engaged in social work for at least several weeks. There is no doubt that Egyptian civilization is widely known for its major achievements. Egyptians invented the hydraulic cement. Egypt was Zoser’s, then Midum’s pyramid. Thanks to the irrigation system, Egypt became the breadbasket of the ancient world.
Lake Fayoum was used by Pharaohs as a reservoir for the storage of excess water, which was very important during droughts. Egyptians’ cultures and worldviews were mainly based on the River Nile. Their view of the world, unlike most other nations, was focused not on the north and south, but mostly on the origins of the river. In addition, the river itself determined the three main seasons. Hapi as the god of the annual flooding of the Nile was portrayed as a fat man who brings gifts to the gods of the earth.